Cassini’s final dive, and more news from TED speakers

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As usual, the TED community has lots of news to share this week. Below, some highlights.

Farewell to Cassini — and here’s to the continuing search for life beyond Earth. In mid-August, PBS released a digital short featuring Carolyn Porco, a planetary scientist and the leader of the imaging team for the Cassini mission to Saturn. In the short, Porco discusses what is required for life to exist on a planet, and how Saturn’s moon Enceladus seems a promising place to look for life outside Earth. This coincides with Cassini’s final dive on September 15, 2017. After 20 years in space, the Cassini spacecraft ended its seven-year observation of Saturn by diving into its atmosphere, where it burned and disintegrated. (Watch Porco’s TED Talk)

How old is zero really? The Bakshali manuscript is a 70-page birch bark manuscript thought to have been used by merchants in India to practice arithmetic. Notably, it contains the number zero, represented by a small dot. After carbon-dating the manuscript, scientists from the University of Oxford, including mathematics professor Marcus du Sautoy, determined that the manuscript likely dates from 200–400 A.D., much earlier than previously thought. If the carbon dating is correct, Bakshali may be the first known usage of zero as a symbol for nothing. (Watch du Sautoy’s TED Talk)

The power of taking time off. In 2009, Stefan Sagmeister took the TED stage by storm as he shared his vision of time off. In his talk, he explains that every seven years, he embarks on a sabbatical year to recharge, be creative, and feel inspired. Fast forward to 2017, and Neil Pasricha teamed up with the CEO of SimpliFlying, a global aviation strategy firm, to test Sagmeister’s approach within the company. Instead of every seven years, employees took vacation every seven weeks. Despite a few pain points, workers’ creativity, productivity and happiness increased, and the firm’s economic performance improved, Pasricha reports in the Harvard Business Review. It seems as though it pays to relax. (Watch Sagmeister’s TED Talk and Neil Pasricha’s TED Talk)

What’s wrong with US democracy — and how to fix it. In this time of divisive politics, Michael Porter and colleague Katherine Gehl released new research describing the causes of the U.S political system’s failure to serve the public interest. Their detailed report explains how the system changed over the years to benefit political parties and industry allies, and offers strategies for how we can reinvigorate our democracy. (Watch Michael Porter’s TED Talk)

The worst flag in North America gets a reboot. In Roman Mars’ TED Talk on awful city flag designs, he calls Pocatello, Idaho’s flag the worst in North America. The city’s residents didn’t stand for that; they called on local officials to create a new flag. In 2016, a flag design committee was formed, discussions were open to the public, and 709 submissions poured in. Mars even traveled to Pocatello to consult on the design process. Now, Pocatello’s flag has been transformed from what the North American Vexillological Association rated as the worst flag in North America into a flag that attempts to capture the beauty and history of Pocatello. (Watch Roman Mars’ TED Talk)  

Community Health Academy: Phase one. The news may be regularly alarming, but around the world, things are on an upward trajectory. At Goalkeepers, held September 19 and 20 in New York City, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation set out to celebrate the “quiet progress” being made toward the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. Amid a speaker lineup that included Malala Yousafzai, Justin Trudeau and Barack Obama, 2017 TED Prize winner Raj Panjabi stepped up to share his vision for bringing health care to the billion people who lack it by empowering community health workers. He shared the latest on his TED Prize wish: the Community Health Academy. The project now has 15 partners and phase one, launching next year, will be a free, open-education platform for policy makers and nonprofit leaders interested in community health models. “We cannot achieve the Global Goals without investing in hiring, training and equipping community health workers,” said Panjabi. “We’re working to make sure community health workers are no longer an informal, unrecognized group but become a renowned, empowered profession like nurses and doctors.” (Watch Panjabi’s TED Talk)

Have a news item to share? Write us at contact@ted.com and you may see it included in this biweekly round-up.

Featured Image Credit: NASA.

 

 

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How the ‘Battle of the Sexes’ influenced a generation of men: Billie Jean King’s TEDWomen update

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Billie Jean King: “Bobby Riggs — he was the former number one player, he wasn’t just some hacker. He was one of my heroes and I admired him. And that’s the reason I beat him, actually, because I respected him.” She spoke with Pat Mitchell at TEDWomen2015. Photo: Marla Aufmuth/TED

Forty-three years ago this week, the number one tennis star in the world, 29-year-old Billie Jean King, agreed to take on 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, in a match dubbed the “Battle of the Sexes.” The prize was $100,000 — which compared with today’s million-dollar-winning pots wasn’t much — but it was the first time that women and men were offered the same amount of prize money for victory.

The exhibition match, which admittedly was more notable at the time for its spectacle and outrageousness — Billie Jean King entered the Houston Astrodome on a feathery litter carried by shirtless men, for instance — was the most watched tennis match ever, with an estimated worldwide television audience of 90 million people. If you are old enough to remember it, you probably watched it.

Billie Jean King won in straight sets: 6-4, 6-3, 6-3.

This weekend, a new movie based on the true story starring Emma Stone as Billie Jean King and Steve Carell as Bobby Riggs hits theaters. With the election of Donald Trump — and all the sexism and misogyny that the 2016 election entailed just behind us — the story is sadly relevant today. As Lynn Sherr wrote in her review of the movie today at BillMoyers.com, “It’s all frustratingly familiar, but this time, the over-the-hill clown won.”

I interviewed Billie Jean King at TEDWomen in 2015 about her tennis career and lifelong fight for gender parity in sports and in the workplace. She talked about the match with Riggs and the intense pressure she felt on every stroke to win for women. She recalled, “I thought, ‘If I lose, it’s going to put women back 50 years, at least.’”

After she won, many women told her that her victory empowered them to finally get up the nerve to ask for a raise at work. “Some women had waited 10, 15 years to ask. I said, ‘More importantly, did you get it?’” (They did.)

As for men, the reaction was delayed. Many years later, she came to realize that the match had made an impact on the generation of men who were children at the time – an impact that they themselves didn’t realize until they were older. She told me, “Most times, the men are the ones who have tears in their eyes, it’s very interesting.” They say, ‘Billie, I was very young when I saw that match, and now I have a daughter. And I am so happy I saw that as a young man.’”

One of those young men was President Obama.

He said: “You don’t realize it, but I saw that match at 12. And now I have two daughters, and it has made a difference in how I raise them.”

Watch my interview with Billie Jean King if you haven’t seen it:

A common refrain of those working to improve diversity and representation in media is that if you can’t see it, you can’t be it. And that’s true in sports, government and in the workplace as well. If leaders don’t represent the diversity of our globalizing world, fresh ideas, diverse talent and an inclusive society can’t flourish. Through the Billie Jean King Leadership Initiative, King works to level the playing field for all people of all backgrounds so that everyone can “achieve their maximum potential and contribute to building a better society for all.” (Full disclosure: I am a member of the BJKLI advisory council.)

Emma Stone told USA Today earlier this month, she’s proud to play a part in showing some of King’s story to a younger audience. “The nice thing about doing a film like this,” she said, “is that there’s a whole generation of people who weren’t born before the Battle of the Sexes who are going to learn about this incredible period in history and all the things that have come since, so I’m grateful for that.”

“It wasn’t about tennis,” says King. “It was about history and social change.”

TEDWomen 2017 happens November 1–3 in New Orleans, and you’re invited. Learn more!

Billie Jean King: “I started thinking about my sport and how everybody who played wore white shoes, white clothes, played with white balls — everybody who played was white. And I said to myself, at 12 years old, “Where is everyone else?” And that just kept sticking in my brain. And that moment, I promised myself I’d fight for equal rights and opportunities for boys and girls, men and women, the rest of my life.” Photo: Marla Aufmuth/TED

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Very strong dangerous aftershock below Ixtepec, Oaxaca – September 23, 2017

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Leave this page open  in a browser tab as it will refresh automatically every 5 minutes

Update 14:24 UTC: Main earth movement based on the current focal mechanism. Image courtesy Observatoire Geoscope

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Update 14:24 UTC:

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Update 14:16 UTC: An already damaged bridge collapsed during this aftershock :(

Update 13:59 UTC: The focal mechanism shows and extensional normal earthquake type
Do beach balls looks like Chinese or Latin to you, check this article “Understanding Beach Balls

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main movement FM

Important update 13:55 UTC: USGS has updated the depth of the hypocenter which comes now at 9 km instead of +30 km, a whole world of difference if you compare the shaking intensity and which explains the picture of a collapsed house we just published!

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Update 13:46 UTC: First pictures of damage are coming in from Ixtepec

Update 13:39 UTC: Live in Mexico these days – A reader wrote us a few moments ago “enough is enough” and we fully understand him

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 15.38.47

Update 13:33 UTC: people and animals are in Oaxaca again in the middle of the street (the best place to stay if traffic stopped)

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 15.32.30

Update 13:27 UTC: Professor Max Wyss, who specializes in theoretical prognoses of injuries and fatalities expects : 0 to 10 fatalities and 10 until 100 injured people

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Update 13:21 UTC:

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Update 13:19 UTC: Another shaking map with colors and MMI intensities Max expected intensity MMI V (moderate shaking)

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 15.18.36

Update 13:18 UTC: shaking map of Mexico

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 15.17.04

Update 13:08 UTC: Nearest city : Lagunas

Update 13:07 UTC: Seismogram as recorded in a seismological station in Guatemala

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 14.58.42

Update 13:06 UTC: This aftershick is below land instead as below the sea which will increase the shaking intensity a lot. Additional damage is very probable!

Screen Shot 2017-09-23 at 14.59.02

Map courtesy Alomax.free.net – Star: calculated epicenter – Small red dots: possible error margin for the epicenter, the more dense, the higher probability that the epicenter will be in that area. Orange circle: epicenter location error zone

Most important Earthquake Data:

Magnitude : 6.1

Local Time (conversion only below land) : 2017-09-23 07:53:02

GMT/UTC Time : 2017-09-23 12:53:02

Depth (Hypocenter) : 10 km

Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

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SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
EMSC Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 14:31 4.9 46 MAP
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GEOFON Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 14:31 4.8 10 MAP
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USGS Union Hidalgo, Mexico Sep 23 14:31 4.9 10 MAP
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EMSC Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 14:27 4.9 52 MAP
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EMSC Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 14:18 4.8 57 MAP
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EMSC Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 14:01 4.8 57 MAP
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GEOFON Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 13:24 4.8 83 MAP
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EMSC Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 13:24 4.8 20 MAP
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USGS Matias Romero, Mexico Sep 23 13:24 4.8 10 MAP
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  • Oaxaca City – Very light shaking perceptible in bed. Hanging lights swayed briefly.
  • USGS Matias Romero, Mexico Sep 23 12:53 6.1 9 MAP
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  • Mexico city – Light shaking in Mexico city.
  • Mexico – Entendu une sirène, puis les chiens aboyer. Durée de l’agitation, peut-être 10 secondes.
  • Mexico City – Very weak and short lived. Alarms went off and everybody evacuated.
  • Oaxaca city – Moderate shaking
  • GEOFON Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 12:53 6.1 10 MAP
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  • Oaxaca – Long aftershock. Rattled
  • Puerto Escondido – 755 am local time. Quizas 15-20 seconds
  • Santiago Apostol, Ocotlán, Oaxaca – About 10-15 sec
  • Puebla – no damage 25-20 seconds
  • Oaxaca City – Moderate shaking for 10 seconds, nothing fell, no obvious damage
  • Mexico City – Very weak shaking
  • San Cristobal de Las Casas – We felt it – hanging plants swayed slightly, water it pitcher rocked. Alarm went off.
  • Oaxaca – Small cracks on the wall
  • Oaxaca city – Light shaking
  • Oaxaca – Enough! Tired of this.
  • Oaxaca City – Woke us up on 2nd floor. ~20 seconds of swaying. No apparent damage.
  • USGS Paredon, Mexico Sep 23 10:38 5.8 74 MAP
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  • Tuxtla Gutiérrez Chiapas México – Movimiento de floreros
  • GEOFON Near Coast Of Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 10:38 5.7 63 MAP
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  • Oaxaca – 5 seconds or less, no damage, nothing fell. I was awake, in bed.
  • USGS Paredon, Mexico Sep 23 07:18 4.1 61 MAP
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    EMSC Offshore Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 07:18 4.3 36 MAP
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    EMSC Offshore Oaxaca, Mexico Sep 23 04:56 4.1 6 MAP
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  • Tapachula chiapas – 6 segundos de duración se sintió levemente
  • Oaxaca City – Possibly 5 seconds of light shaking around 5:45 central time.
  • USGS San Mateo Del Mar, Mexico Sep 23 03:34 4.2 33 MAP
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    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
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    Shaking Strength *
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?

    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?

    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?

    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
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    Structures :
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    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?

    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?

    People
    Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or “easy glide” drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?

    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?

    People
    Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected.

    Structures :
    Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down.

    Environment :
    Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.

    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?

    Structures
    Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames.

    Environment :
    Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.

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    source

    Strong earthquake off the coast of Ferndale, California – September 22, 2017

    0

    Update 20:17 UTC: Shaking map. Coastal area seems to have only a maximum very weak shaking

    Screen Shot 2017-09-22 at 22.14.26

    Update 20:15 UTC: Focal mechanism indicates indeed a strike-slip transform based earthquake
    Do beach balls looks like Chinese or Latin to you, check this article “Understanding Beach Balls

     

    Screen Shot 2017-09-22 at 22.14.10-compressedUpdate 20:07 UTC: The earthquake epicenter is located in the area of the Gorda Escarpment
    The Mendocino Fracture Zone is a fracture zone and transform boundary off the coast of Cape Mendocino in far northern California. It runs westward from a triple junction with the San Andreas Fault and the Cascadia subduction zone to the southern end of the Gorda Ridge. It continues on west of its junction with the Gorda Ridge, as an inactive remnant section which extends for several hundred miles.
    Technically, a fracture zone is not a transform fault, but in the case of the Mendocino, the term has been loosely applied to the active fault segment east of the Gorda Ridge as well as to the true fracture zone segment west of it. Many seismologists refer to the active segment as the Mendocino Fault or Mendocino fault zone.

    Screen Shot 2017-09-22 at 22.07.17

    Screen Shot 2017-09-22 at 22.10.35

    Update 20:00 UTC: Transform fault earthquake in the area where the San Andreas fault meets the Gorda ridge off the coast. The location is typical for this kind of strong earthquakes.

    Update 20:01 UTC: Based on the present earthquake parameters (Magnitude, Depth, Population, etc) and our experience with earthquake damage impact, earthquake-Report.com does not expect any serious damage from this earthquake

    Screen Shot 2017-09-22 at 21.59.14

    Map courtesy Alomax.free.net – Star: calculated epicenter – Small red dots: possible error margin for the epicenter, the more dense, the higher probability that the epicenter will be in that area. Orange circle: epicenter location error zone

    Capetown, California, 195.1 km (121.2 mi)
    Fortuna, California, 213.4 km (132.6 mi)
    Arcata, California, 223.6 km (138.9 mi)
    Sacramento, California, 490.3 km (304.7 mi)

    Most important Earthquake Data:

    Magnitude : 5.7

    Local Time (conversion only below land) : Unknown

    GMT/UTC Time : 2017-09-22 19:50:16

    Depth (Hypocenter) : 15.07 km

    Depth and Magnitude updates in the list below.

    Donation - long - San Francisco

    Share your earthquake experience (I Have Felt It) with our readers.
    Click on the “I Felt It” button behind the corresponding earthquake. Your earthquake experience is not only important for science, but also for people in the area as well as our global readership.

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    SRC Location UTC Date/time M D INFO
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 21:53 2.9 16 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 20:33 3.1 4 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    GEOFON Off Coast Of N. California Sep 22 19:50 5.6 10 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 19:50 5.7 11 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 19:50 5.7 15 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
  • Ferndale – Sharp bang over very quick only felt it for 3 seconds or so
  • Redding,ca – On heavy equipment…ground felt like jello shaking. No damage.
  • EMSC Offshore Northern California Sep 22 16:54 3.3 15 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 16:54 3.0 25 MAP
    <!–

    MAP
    USGS Ferndale, California Sep 22 16:14 3.1 16 MAP
    <!–

    MAP

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    City/Village where you felt the earthquake *
    Street or suburb (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Latitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Longitude (area) where you felt the earthquake
    Time that you felt the earthquake (local time)
    Shaking Strength *
    MMI II (Very weak shaking) ?

    People :
    Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favorably placed.
    MMI III (Weak shaking) ?

    People :
    Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing of light trucks, duration may be estimated, may not be recognized as an earthquake.
    MMI IV (Light shaking) ?

    People :
    Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likened to the passing of heavy traffic, or to the jolt of a heavy object falling or striking the building.
    Fittings :
    Doors and windows rattle. Glassware and crockery rattle. Liquids in open vessels may be slightly disturbed. Standing motorcars may rock.
    Structures :
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    MMI V (Moderate shaking) ?

    People :
    Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.
    Fittings :
    Small unstable objects are displaced or upset. Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Hanging pictures knock against the wall. Open doors may swing. Cupboard doors secured by magnetic catches may open. Pendulum clocks stop, start, or change rate.
    Structures :
    Some large display windows cracked. A few earthenware toilet fixtures cracked.
    MMI VI (Strong shaking) ?

    People
    Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Difficulty experienced in walking steadily.
    Fittings :
    Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall from walls. Some furniture moved on smooth floors, some unsecured free-standing fireplaces moved. Glassware and crockery broken. Very unstable furniture overturned. Small church and school bells ring. Appliances move on bench or table tops. Filing cabinets or “easy glide” drawers may open (or shut).
    Structures :
    Slight damage to buildings with low standard. Some stucco or cement plaster falls. Large display windows broken. Damage to a few weak domestic chimneys, some may fall.
    Environment :
    Trees and bushes shake, or are heard to rustle. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground, e.g. existing slides, talus slopes, shingle slides.
    MMI VII (Very strong shaking) ?

    People
    General alarm. Difficulty experienced in standing. Noticed by motorcar drivers who may stop.
    Fittings :
    Large bells ring. Furniture moves on smooth floors, may move on carpeted floors. Substantial damage to fragile contents of buildings.
    Structures :
    Unreinforced stone and brick walls cracked. Low standard buildings cracked with some minor masonry falls. A few instances of damage to buildings of ordinary workmanship. Unbraced parapets, unbraced brick gables, and architectural ornaments fall. Roofing tiles, especially ridge tiles may be dislodged. Many unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, often falling from roof-line. Water tanks Type I burst. A few instances of damage to brick veneers and plaster or cement-based linings. Unrestrained water cylinders (hot-water cylinders) may move and leak. Some common windows cracked. Suspended ceilings damaged.
    Environment :
    Water made turbid by stirred up mud. Small slides such as falls of sand and gravel banks, and small rock-falls from steep slopes and cuttings. Instances of settlement of unconsolidated or wet, or weak soils. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances of liquefaction (i.e. small water and sand ejections).
    MMI VIII (Severe shaking) ?

    People
    Alarm may approach panic. Steering of motorcars greatly affected.

    Structures :
    Low standard buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. ordinary workmanship buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged in some cases. A few instances of damage to buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes. Monuments and pre-1976 elevated tanks and factory stacks twisted or brought down. Some pre-1965 infill masonry panels damaged. A few post-1980 brick veneers damaged. Decayed timber piles of houses damaged. Houses not secured to foundations may move. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, some below roof-line, many brought down.

    Environment :
    Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Small to moderate slides in roadside cuttings and unsupported excavations. Small water and sand ejections and localized lateral spreading adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.

    MMI IX (Violent shaking) ?

    Structures
    Many low standard buildings destroyed. Ordinary workmanship buildings heavily damaged, some collapse. Reinforced masonry or concrete buildings damaged, some with partial collapse. Buildings and bridges designed and built to resist earthquakes damaged in some cases, some with flexible frames seriously damaged. Damage or permanent distortion to some buildings and bridges, designed and built to normal use standards. Houses not secured to foundations shifted off. Brick veneers fall and expose frames.

    Environment :
    Cracking of ground conspicuous. Landsliding general on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified and more widespread, with large lateral spreading and flow sliding adjacent to streams, canals, lakes, etc.

    Tell us your experience and how many seconds the shaking lasted + let us know if your property has been damaged (even slight damage). (max. 500 characters)

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    source

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