TED

Why not? Pushing and prodding the possible, at TED@IBM

The stage at TED@IBM bubbles with possibilities … at the SFJAZZ Center, December 6, 2017, San Francisco, California. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

We know that our world — our data, our lives, our countries — are becoming more and more connected. But what should we do with that? In two sessions of TED@IBM, the answer shaped up to be: Dream as big as you can. Speakers took the stage to pitch their ideas for using connected data and new forms of machine intelligence to make material changes in the way we live our lives — and also challenged us to flip the focus back to ourselves, to think about what we still need to learn about being human in order to make better tech. From the stage of TED@IBM’s longtime home at the SFJAZZ Center, executive Ann Rubin welcomes us and introduces our two onstage hosts, TED’s own Bryn Freedman and her cohost Michaela Stribling, a longtime IBMer who’s been a great champion of new ideas. And with that, we begin.

Giving plastic a new sense of value. A garbage truck full of plastic enters the ocean every minute of every hour of every day. Plastic is now in the food chain (and your bloodstream), and scientists think it’s contributing to the fastest rate of extinction ever. But we shouldn’t be thinking about cleaning up all that ocean plastic, suggests plastics alchemist David Katz — we should be working to stop plastic from getting there in the first place. And the place to start is in extremely poor countries — the origin of 80 percent of plastic pollution — where recycling just isn’t a priority. Katz has created The Plastic Bank, a worldwide chain of stores where everything from school tuition and medical insurance to Wi-Fi and high-efficiency stoves is available to be purchased in exchange for plastic garbage. Once collected, the plastic is sorted, shredded and sold to brands like Marks & Spencer and Henkel, who have commissioned the use of “Social Plastic” in their products. “Buy shampoo or detergent that has Social Plastic packaging, and you’re indirectly contributing to the extraction of plastic from ocean-bound waterways and alleviating poverty at the same time,” Katz says. It’s a step towards closing the loop on the circular economy, it’s completely replicable, and it’s gamifying recycling. As Katz puts it: “Be a part of the solution, not the pollution.”

How can we stop plastic from piling up in the oceans? David Katz has one way: He runs an international chain of stores that trade plastic recyclables for money. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

How do we help teens in distress? AI is great at looking for patterns. Could we leverage that skill, asks 14-year-old cognitive developer Tanmay Bakshi, to spot behavior issues lurking under the surface? “Humans aren’t very good at detecting patterns like changes in someone’s sleep, exercise levels, and public interaction,” he says. “If some of the patterns from these suicidal teens go unrecognized and unnoticed by the human eye,” he suggests we could let technology help us out. For the last 3 years, Bakshi and his team have been working with artificial neural networks (ANNs, for short) to develop an app that can pick up on irregularities in a person’s online behavior and build an early warning systems for at-risk teens. With this technology and information access, they foresee a future where a diagnosis is given and all-encompassing help is available right at their fingertips.

An IBMer reads Tanmay Bakshi’s bio — to confirm that, yes, he’s just 14. At TED@IBM, Bakshi made his pitch for a social listening tool that could help identify teens who might be heading for a crisis. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

A better way to manage refugee crises. When the Syrian Civil War broke out, Rana Novack, the daughter of Syrian immigrants, watched her extended family face an impossible choice: stay home and risk their lives, leave for a refugee camp, or apply for a visa, which could take years and has no guarantee. She quickly realized there was no clear plan to handle a refugee crisis of this magnitude (it’s estimated that there are over 5 million Syrian refugees worldwide). “When it comes to refugees, we’re improvising,” she says. Frustrated with her inability to help her family, Novack eventually struck on the idea of applying predictive technology to refugee crises. “I had a vision that if we could predict it, we could enable government agencies and humanitarian aid organizations with the right information ahead of time so it wasn’t such a reactive process,” she says. Novack and her team built a prototype that will be deployed this year with a refugee organization in Denmark and next year with an organization to help prevent human trafficking. “We have to make sure that the people who want to do the right thing, who want to help, have the tools and the information they need to succeed,” she says, “and those who don’t act can no longer hide behind the excuse they didn’t know it was coming.”

After her talk onstage at TED@IBM, Rana Novack continues the conversation on how to use data to help refugees.  Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

What is information? It seems like a simple question, maybe almost too simple to ask. But Phil Tetlow is here to suggest that answering this question might be the key to understanding the universe itself. In an engaging talk, he walks the audience through the eight steps of understanding exactly what information is. It starts by getting to grips with the sheer complexity of the universe. Our minds use particular tools to organize all this sheer data into relevant information, tools like pattern-matching and simplifying. Our need to organize and connect things, in turn, leads us to create networks. Tetlow offers a short course in network theory, and shows us how, over and over, vast amounts of information tend to connect to one another through a relatively small set of central hubs. We’re familiar with this property: think of airline route maps or even those nifty maps of the internet that show how vast amounts of information ends up flowing through a few large sites, mainly Google and Facebook. Call it the 80/20 rule, where 80% of the interesting stuff arrives via 20% of the network. Nature, it turns out, forms the same kind of 80/20 network patterns all the time — in plant evolution, in chemical networks, in the way a tree branches out from a central trunk. And that’s why, Tetlow suggests, understanding the nature of information, and how it networks together, might give us a clue as to the nature of life, the universe, and why we’re even here at all.

Want to know what information is, exactly? Phil Tetlow does too — because understanding what information is, he suggests, might just help us understand why we exist at all. He speaks at TED@IBM. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

Curiosity + passion = daring innovation. While driving to work in Johannesburg, South Africa, Tapiwa Chiwewe noticed a large cloud of air pollution he hadn’t seen before. While he’s not a pollution expert, he was curious — so he did some research, and discovered that the World Health Organization reported that nearly 14 percent of all deaths worldwide in 2012 were attributable to household and ambient air pollution, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. What could he do with his new knowledge? He’s not a pollution expert — but he is a computer engineer. So he paired up with colleagues from South Africa and China to create an air quality decision support system that lives in the cloud to uncover spatiotemporal trends of air pollution and create a new machine-learning technology to predict future levels of pollution. The tool gives city planners an improved understanding of how to plan infrastructure. His story shows how curiosity and concern for air pollution can lead to collaboration and creative innovation. “Ask yourself this: Why not?” Chiwewe says. “Why not just go ahead and tackle the problem head-on, as best as you can, in your own way?”

Tapiwa Chiwewe helped invent a system that tracks air pollution — blending his expertise as a computer engineer with a field he was not an expert in, air quality monitoring. He speaks at TED@IBM about using one’s particular set of skills to affect issues that matter. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

What if AI was one of us? Well, it is. If you’re human, you’re biased. Sometimes that bias is explicit, other times it’s unconscious, says documentarian Robin Hauser. Bias can be a good thing — it informs and protects from potential danger. But this ingrained survival technique often leads to more harmful than helpful ends. The same goes for our technology, specifically artificial intelligence. It may sound obvious, but these superhuman algorithms are built by, well, humans. AI is not an objective, all-seeing solution; AI is already biased, just like the humans who built it. Thus, their biases — both implicit and completely obvious — influence what data an AI sees, understands and puts out into the world. Hauser walks through well-recorded moments in our recent history where the inherent, implicit bias of AI revealed the worst of society and the humans in it. Remember Tay? All jokes aside, we need to have a conversation about how AI should be governed and ask who is responsible for overseeing the ethical standards of these supercomputers. “We need to figure this out now,” she says. “Because once skewed data gets into deep learning machines, it’s very difficult to take it out.”

A mesmerizing journey into the world of plankton. “Hold your breath,” says inventor Thomas Zimmerman: “This is the world without plankton.” These tiny organisms produce two-thirds of our oxygen, but rising sea surface temperatures caused by climate change are threatening their very existence. This in turn endangers the fish that eat them and the roughly one billion people around the world that depend on those fish for animal protein. “Our carbon footprint is crushing the very creatures that sustain us,” says his thought partner, engineer Simone Bianco, “Why aren’t we doing something about it?” Their theory is that plankton are tiny and it’s really hard to care about something that you can’t see. So, the pair developed a microscope that allow us to enter the world of plankton and appreciate their tremendous diversity. “Yes, our world is based on fossil fuels, but we can adjust our society to run on renewable energy from the sun to create a more sustainable and secure future,” says Zimmerman, “That’s good for the little creatures here, the plankton, and that’s good for us.”

Thomas Zimmerman (in hat) and Simone Bianco share their project to make plankton more visible — and thus easier to care about and protect. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

A poet’s call to protect our planet. “How can something this big be invisible?” asks IN-Q. “The ozone is everywhere, and yet it isn’t visible. Maybe if we saw it, we would see it’s not invincible, and have to take responsibility as individuals.” The world-renowned poet closed out the first session of TED@IBM with his original spoken-word poem “Movie Stars,” which asks us to reckon with climate change and our role in it. With feeling and urgency, IN-Q chronicles the havoc we’ve wreaked on our once-wild earth, from “all the species on the planet that are dying” to “the atmosphere we’ve been frying.” He criticizes capitalism that uses “nature as its example and excuse for competition,” the politicians who allow it, and the citizens too cynical to believe in facts. He finishes the poem with a call to action to anyone listening to take ownership of our home turf, our oceans, our forests, our mountains, our skies. “One little dot is all that we’ve got,” says IN-Q. “We just forgot that none of it’s ours; we just forgot that all of it’s ours.”

With guitar, drums and (expert) whistling, The Ferocious Few open Session 2 with a rocking, stripped-down performance of “Crying Shame.” The band’s musical journey from the streets of San Francisco to the big cities of the United States falls within this year’s TED@IBM theme, “Why not?” — encouraging musicians and others alike to question boundaries, explore limits and carry on.

Why the tech world needs more humanities majors. A few years ago, Eric Berridge’s software consultancy was in crisis, struggling to deal with a technical challenge facing his biggest client. When none of his engineers could solve the problem, they went to drown their sorrows and talk to their favorite bartender, Jeff — who said, “Let me talk to these guys.” To everyone’s surprise and delight, Jeff’s meeting the next day shifted the conversation completely, salvaged the company’s relationship with its client, and forever changed how Berridge thinks about who should work in the tech sector. At TED@IBM, he explained why tech companies should look beyond STEM graduates for new hires, and how people with backgrounds in the arts and humanities can bring creativity and unique insight into a technical workplace. Today, Berridge’s consulting company boasts 1,000 employees, only 100 of whom have degrees in computer programming. And his CTO? He’s a former English major/bike messenger.

Eric Berridge put his favorite bartender in a room with his biggest client — and walked out convinced that the tech sector needs to make room for humanities majors and people with multiple kinds of skills, not just more and more engineers. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

The surprising and empowering truth about your emotions. “It may feel to you like your emotions are hardwired,  that they just happen to you, but they don’t. You might believe your brain is pre-wired with emotion circuits, but it’s not,” says Lisa Feldman Barrett, a psychology professor at Northeastern University who has studied emotions for 25 years. So what are emotions? They’re guesses based on past experiences that our brain generates in the moment to help us make sense of the world quickly, Barrett says. “Emotions that seem to happen to you are actually made by you,” she adds. For example, many of us hear our morning alarm go off, and as we wake up, we find ourselves enveloped by dread. We start thinking about all of our to-dos — the emails and calls to return, the drop-offs, the meals to cook. Our mind races, and we tell ourselves “I feel anxious” or “I feel overwhelmed.” This mind-racing is prediction, says Barrett. “Your brain is searching to find an explanation for those sensations in your body that you’re experiencing as wretchedness. But those sensations may have a physical cause.” In other words — you just woke up, maybe you’re just hungry. The next time you feel distressed, ask yourself: “Could this have a purely physical cause? Am I just tired, hungry, hot or dehydrated?” And we should be empowered by these findings, declares Barrett. “The actions and experiences that you make today become your brain’s predictions for tomorrow.”

In a mind-shifting talk, Lisa Feldman Barrett shares her research on what emotions are … and it’s probably not what you think., Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

Emotionally authentic relationships between AI and humans. “Imagine an AI that can know or predict what you want or need based on a sliver of information, the tone of your voice, or a particular phrase,” says IBM distinguished designer Adam Cutler. “Like when you were growing up and you’d ask your mom to make you a grilled cheese just the way you like it, and she knew exactly what you meant.” Cutler is working to create a bot that would be capable of participating in this kind of exchange with a person. More specifically, he is focusing on how to form an inside joke between machine and mortal. How? “Interpreting human intent through natural language understanding and pairing it with tone and semantic analysis in real time,” he says. Cutler contends that we humans already form relationships with machines — we name our cars, we refer to our laptops as being “cranky” or “difficult” — so we should do this with intention. Let’s design AI that responds and serves us in ways that are truly helpful and meaningful.

Adam Cutler talks about the first time he encountered an AI-enabled robot — and what it made him realize about his and our relationship to AI. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

Can art help make AI more human? “We’re trying to create technology that you’ll want to interact with in the far future,” says artist Raphael Arar. “We’re taking a moonshot that we’ll want to be interacting with computers in deeply emotional ways.” In order for that future of AI to be a reality, Arar believes that technology will have to become a lot more human, and that art can help by translating the complexity of what it means to be human to machines. As a researcher and designer with IBM Research, Arar has designed artworks that help AI explore nostalgia, conversations and human intuition. “Our lives revolve around our devices, smart appliances, and more, and I don’t think this will let up anytime soon,” he says, “So I’m trying to embed more ‘humanness’ from the start, and I have a hunch that bringing art into an AI research process is a way to do just that.”

How can we make AI more human-friendly? Raphael Arar suggests we start with making art. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

Where the body meets the mind. For millennia, philosophers have pondered the question of whether the mind and body exist as a duality or as part of a continuum, and it’s never been more practically relevant than it is today, as we learn more about the way the two connect. What can science teach us about this problem? Natalie Gunn studies both Alzheimer’s and colorectal cancer, and she wants to apply modern medicine and analytics to the mind-body problem. For her work on Alzheimer’s, she’s developing a blood test to screen for the disease, hoping to replace expensive PET scans and painful lumbar punctures. Her research on cancer is where the mind-body connection gets interesting: Does our mindset have an impact on cancer? There’s little conclusive evidence either way, Gunn says, but it’s time we took the question seriously, and put the wealth of analytical tools we have at our disposal to the test. “We need to investigate how a disease of the body could be impacted by our mind, particularly for a disease like cancer that is so steeped in our psyche,” Gunn says. “When we can do this, the philosophical question of where the body ends and the mind begins enters into the realm of scientific discovery rather than science fiction.”

Researcher Natalie Gunn wants to suggest a science-based lens to look at the mind-body problem. Photo: Russell Edwards / TED

Is Parkinson’s an electrical problem? Brain researcher Eleftheria Pissadaki studies Parkinson’s, but instead of focusing on the biological aspects of the disease, like genetics and dopamine depletion, she’s looking at the problem in terms of energy. Pissadaki and her team have created mathematical models of dopamine neurons, the neurons that selectively die in Parkinson’s, and they’ve found that the bigger a neuron is, the more vulnerable it becomes … simply because it needs a lot of energy. What can we do with this information? Pissadaki suggests we might someday be able to neuroprotect our brain cells by “finding the fuse box for each neuron” and figuring out how much energy it needs. Then we might be able to develop medicine tailored for people’s brain energy profiles, or drugs that turn neurons off whenever they’re getting tired but before they die. “It’s an amazingly complex problem,” Pissadaki says, “but one that is totally worth pursuing.”

Eleftheria Pissadaki is imagining new ways to think about and treat diseases like Parkinson’s, suggesting research directions that might create new hope. Photo: Photographer Russell Edwards / TED

How to build a smarter brain. Just as we can reshape our bodies and build stronger muscles with exercise, Bruno Michel thinks we can train our way to better, faster brains — brains smart enough to compete with sophisticated AI. At TED@IBM, the brain fitness advocate discussed various strategies for improving your noggin. For instance, to think in a more structured way, try studying Latin, math or music. For a boost to your general intelligence, try yoga, read, make new friends, and do new things. Or, try pursuing a specific task with transferable skills as Michel has done for 30 years. He closed his talk with the practice he credits with significantly improving both the speed of his thinking and his reaction times— tap dancing!

Click to view slideshow.

source

Get ready for TED Talks India: Nayi Soch, premiering Dec. 10 on Star Plus

This billboard is showing up in streets around India, and it’s made out of pollution fumes that have been collected and made into ink — ink that’s, in turn, made into an image of TED Talks India: Nayi Soch host Shah Rukh Khan. Tune in on Sunday night, Dec. 10, at 7pm on Star Plus to see what it’s all about.

TED is a global organization with a broad global audience. With our TED Translators program working in more than 100 languages, TEDx events happening every day around the world and so much more, we work hard to present the latest ideas for everyone, regardless of language, location or platform.

Now we’ve embarked on a journey with one of the largest TV networks in the world — and one of the biggest movie stars in the world — to create a Hindi-language TV series and digital series that’s focused on a country at the peak of innovation and technology: India.

Hosted and curated by Shah Rukh Khan, the TV series TED Talks India: Nayi Soch will premiere in India on Star Plus on December 10.

The name of the show, Nayi Soch, literally means ‘new ideas’ — and this kick-off episode seeks to inspire the nation to embrace and cultivate ideas and curiosity. Watch it and discover a program of speakers from India and the world whose ideas might inspire you to some new thinking of your own! For instance — the image on this billboard above is made from the fumes of your car … a very new and surprising idea!

If you’re in India, tune in at 7pm IST on Sunday night, Dec. 10, to watch the premiere episode on Star Plus and five other channels. Then tune in to Star Plus on the next seven Sundays, at the same time, to hear even more great talks on ideas, grouped into themes that will certainly inspire conversations. You can also explore the show on the HotStar app.

On TED.com/india and for TED mobile app users in India, each episode will be conveniently turned into five to seven individual TED Talks, one talk for each speaker on the program. You can watch and share them on their own, or download them as playlists to watch one after another. The talks are given in Hindi, with professional subtitles in Hindi and in English. Almost every talk will feature a short Q&A between the speaker and the host, Shah Rukh Khan, that dives deeper into the ideas shared onstage.

Want to learn more about TED Talks? Check out this playlist that SRK curated just for you.

source

Brand-new TED Talks from TEDWomen 2017: A note from the curator

This year’s TEDWomen in New Orleans was a truly special conference, at a vital moment, and I’m sure the ripples will be felt for a long time to come. The theme this year was bridges: we build them, we cross them, sometimes we even burn them. Our speakers talked about the physical bridges we need for access and connection as well as the metaphoric ones we need to bridge the differences that increasingly divide us.

Along with the inspiring TED Talks and often game-changing ideas that were shared in the TEDWomen stage, my biggest take-away from this year’s conference was once again the importance of community and the opportunity this conference offers for women and a few good men from different countries, cultures, religions, backgrounds, from so many different sectors of work and experience, to come to together to listen, to learn, to connect with each other, to build their own bridges.

Take a look at all the presentations with our detailed speaker-by-speaker coverage on the TED Blog. Between sessions, we hosted four great Facebook Live conversations in the Blue Room, diving deeper into ideas from talks with WNYC’s Manoush Zomorodi. Catch up on them right here.

And we’re starting to post TED Talks from our event to share freely with the world. First up: Gretchen Carlson, whose timely talk about sexual harassment is relevant and resonant for so many women and men at this #MeToo moment. It’s already been viewed by over 800,000 people!

Gretchen calls on women who have experienced sexual harassment to “Be Fierce!” (also the title of her recent book). Luvvie Ajayi, in another TEDWomen Talk being released today, encourages not just women, but all of us to be courageous and to Speak Up when we have something to say, even if it makes others uncomfortable — especially if it makes the speaker uncomfortable. “I want us to leave this world better than we found it,” she told the audience in her hopeful and uplifting talk, “And how I choose to effect change is by speaking up, by being the first and by being the domino.”

And don’t miss Teresa Njoroge’s powerful talk on women in prison. At Clean Start Kenya, Njoroge builds bridges connecting the formerly imprisoned to the outside world and vice versa.

And one of the highlights of the conference for me, my conversation with Leah Chase, the Queen of Creole Cuisine. Chase’s New Orleans restaurant Dooky Chase changed the course of American history over gumbo and fried chicken. During the civil rights movement, it was a place where white and black people came together, where activists planned protests and where the police entered but did not disturb — and it continues to operate in the same spirit today. In our talk, she shares her wisdom from a lifetime of activism, speaking up and cooking.

Follow me on Facebook and Twitter for updates as we publish more TEDWomen 2017 videos in coming weeks and months. And please share your thoughts with me here in the comments about TEDWomen, these videos and ideas you have for speakers at TEDWomen 2018. We’re always looking for great ideas!

Gratefully,
— Pat

source

Breakthroughs: The talks of TED@Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany

Humanity is defined by its immense body of knowledge. Most times it inches forward, shedding light onto the mysteries of the universe and easing life’s endeavors in small increments. But in some special moments, knowledge and understanding leap forward, when one concentrated mind or one crucial discovery redirects the course of things and changes the space of possibilities.

TED and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, have partnered to help surface and share brilliant ideas, innovations — and breakthroughs. At the inaugural TED@Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany event, hosted by TED International Curator Bruno Giussani at Here East in London on November 28, 16 brilliant minds in healthcare, technology, art, psychology and other fields shared stories of human imagination and discovery.

After opening remarks from Belén Garijo, CEO, Healthcare for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, the talks of Session 1 kicked off.

Biochemist Bijan Zakeri explains the mechanism behind a molecular superglue that could allows us to assemble new protein shapes. (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

A molecular superglue made from flesh-eating bacteria. The bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes — responsible for diseases including strep throat, scarlet fever and necrotizing fasciitis (colloquially, flesh-eating disease) — has long, hair-like appendages made of proteins with a unique property: the ends of these proteins are linked by an incredibly strong chemical bond. “You can boil them, try to cut them with enzymes or throw them in strong acids and bases. Nothing happens to them,” says biochemist Bijan Zakeri. Along with his adviser Mark Howarth, Zakeri figured out a way to engineer these proteins to create what he describes as a molecular superglue. The superglue allows us to assemble new protein shapes, and “you can chemically link the glue components to other organic and inorganic molecules, like medicines, DNA, metals and more, to build new nano-scale objects that address important scientific and medical needs,” Zakeri says.

What if we could print electronics? “We must manufacture devices in a whole new way, with the electronics integrated inside the object, not just bolted in afterwards,” says advanced technologist Dan Walker. He introduces us to his vision of the fast approaching future of technology, which could take two potential paths: “The first is hyper-scale production, producing electrically functional parts along the standard centralized model of manufacturing. Think of how we print newspapers, ink on paper, repeating for thousands of copies. Electronics can be printed in this way, too.” he says. Walker designs inks that conduct electricity and can be used to print functional electronics, like wires. This ink can be used in inkjet printers, the sort that can be found in most offices and homes. But these inkjet printers are still 2D printers — they can print the electronics onto the object, but they can’t print the object itself. “The second way the manufacturing world will go is towards marrying these two techniques of digital printing, inkjet and 3D, and the result will be the ability to create electrically functional objects,” Walker explain, both unique objects bespoke for individual customers and perfect replicas printed off by the thousands.

Strategic marketer Hannah Bürckstümmer explains her work developing organic photovoltaics — and how they might change how we power the world. (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

A printable solar cell. Buildings consume about 40 percent of our total energy, which means reducing their energy consumption could help us significantly decrease our CO2 emissions. Solar cells could have a big role to play here, but they’re not always the most aesthetically pleasing solution. Strategic marketer Hannah Bürckstümmer is working on a totally different solar cell technology: organic photovoltaics. Unlike the solar cells you’re used to seeing, these cells are made of compounds that are dissolved in ink and can be printed using simple techniques. The result is a thin film that absorbs the energy of the sun. The solar module looks like a plastic foil and is low weight, flexible and semi-transparent. It can be used in this form or combined with conventional construction materials like glass. “With the printing process, the solar cell can change its shape and design very easily,” Bürckstümmer says, displaying a cell onstage. “This will give the flexibility to architects, to planners and building owners to integrate this electricity-producing technology as they wish.” Plus, it may just help buildings go from energy consumers to energy providers.

A robot that can grab a tomato without crushing it. Robots are excellent at many tasks — but handling delicate items isn’t one of them. Carl Vause, CEO of Soft Robotics, suggests that instead of trying to recreate the human hand, roboticists should instead seek inspiration from other parts of nature. Consider the octopus: it’s very good at manipulating items, wrapping its tentacles around objects and conforming to their shapes. So what if we could get robots to act like an octopus tentacle? That’s exactly what a group of researchers at Harvard did: in 2009, they used a composite material structure, with rubber and paper, to create a robot that can conform to and grasp soft objects. Demoing the robot onstage, Vause shows it can pick up a bath sponge, a rubber duck, a breakfast scone and even a chicken egg. Why is this important? Because until now, industries like agriculture, food manufacturing and even retail have been largely unable to benefit from robots. With a robot that can grasp something as soft as a tomato, we’ll open up whole industries to the benefits of automation.

Departing from rules can be advantageous — and hilarious. In between jokes about therapy self-assessment forms, hair salons and box junctions, human nature explorer James Veitch questions the rules and formalities people are taught to respect throughout life. An avid email and letter writer, Veitch is unafraid and unapologetic in voicing his concerns about anyone whose actions fall in line with protocols but out of line with common sense. To this effect, he questions Jennifer, a customer relations team member at Headmasters Salon, as to why he and his friend Nige received comparable haircuts when they booked appointments with different types of stylists: Nige with a Senior Stylist (who cost 34 Euros) and Veitch with a Master Hair Consultant (who cost 54 Euros). Using percentages and mathematics, and even inquiring into the reasons why Nige received a biscuit and he didn’t, Veitch argues his way into a free haircut. Though Veitch is clearly enjoying himself by questioning protocols, he derives more than amusement from this process — as he shows us how departing from rules and formalities can be advantageous and hilarious, all at once.

If we can’t fight our emotions, why not use them? Emotions are as important in science as they are in any other part of our lives, says materials researcher Ilona Stengel. The combination of emotion and logical reasoning is crucial for facing challenges and exploring new solutions. Especially in the scientific world, feelings are just as necessary as facts and logic for paving the way to breakthroughs, discoveries and cutting-edge innovations. “We shouldn’t be afraid of using our feelings to implement and to catalyze fact-based science,” Stengel says. Stengel insists that having a personal, emotional stake in the work that you do can alter your progress and output in an incredibly positive way, that emotions and logic do not oppose, but complement and reinforce each other. She asks us all — whether we’re in or outside of the science world — to reflect on our work and how it might give us a sense of belonging, dedication and empowerment.

TED International Curator Bruno Giussani, left, speaks with Scott Williams about the important role informal caregivers play in the healthcare system. (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

Putting the “care” back in healthcare. Once a cared-for patient and now a caregiver himself, Scott Williams asks us to recognize the role that informal caregivers — those friends and relatives who go the extra mile out of love — play in healthcare systems. Although they don’t administer medication or create treatment plans for patients, informal caregivers are instrumental in helping people return to good health, Williams says. They give up their jobs, move into hospitals with patients, know patients’ medical histories and sometimes make difficult decisions for them. Williams suggests that without informal caregivers, “our health and social systems would crumble, and yet they’re largely going unrecognized.” He invites us to recognize their selfless work — and their essential value to the smooth functioning of healthcare systems.

Tiffany Watt Smith speaks about the fascinating history of how we understand our emotions. (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

Yes, emotions have a history. When we look to the past, it’s easy to see that emotions changed — sometimes very dramatically — in response to new cultural expectations and new ideas about gender, ethnicity, age and politics, says Tiffany Watt Smith, a research fellow at the Centre for the History of the Emotions at the Queen Mary University of London. Take nostalgia, which was defined in 1688 as homesickness and seen as being deadly. It last appeared as a cause of death on a death certificate in 1918, for an American soldier fighting in France during WWI. Today, it means something quite different — a longing for a lost time — and it’s much less serious. This change was driven by a shift in values, says Watt Smith. “True emotional intelligence requires we understand the social, political, cultural forces that have shaped what we’ve come to believe about our emotions and understand how they might still be changing now.”

Dispelling myths about the future of work. “Could machines replace humans?” was a question once pondered by screenwriters and programmers. Today, it’s on the minds of anybody with a job to lose. Daniel Susskind, a fellow in economics at Oxford University, kicked off Session 2 by tackling three misconceptions we have about our automated future. First: the Terminator myth, which says machines will replace people at work. While that might sometimes happen, Susskind says that machines will also complement us and make us more productive. Next, the intelligence myth, which says some tasks can’t be automated because machines don’t possess the human-like reasoning to do them. Susskind dispels this by explaining how advances in processing power, data storage and algorithms have given computers the ability to handle complex tasks — like diagnosing diseases and driving cars. And finally: the superiority myth, which says technological progress will create new tasks that humans are best equipped to do. That’s simply not true, Susskind says, since machines are capable of doing different kinds of activities. “The threat of technological unemployment is real,” he declares, “Yet it is a good problem to have.” For much of our history, the biggest problem has been ensuring enough material prosperity for everyone; global GDP lingered at about a few hundred dollars per person for centuries. Now it is $10,150, and its growth shows no signs of stopping. Work has been the traditional way in which we’ve distributed wealth, so how should we do it in a world when there will be less — or even no — work? That’s the question we really need to answer.

A happy company is a healthy company, says transformation manager Lena Bieber. She suggests that we factor in employee happiness when we think about — and invest in — companies.  (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

Investing in the future of happiness. Can financial parameters like return on equity, cash flow or relative market share really tell us if a company is fundamentally healthy and predict its future performance? Transformation manager Lena Bieber thinks we should add one more indicator: happiness. “I would like to see the level of happiness in a company become a public indicator — literally displayed next to their share price on their homepages,” she says. With the level of happiness so prominent, people could feel more secure in the investments they’re making, knowing that employees of certain companies are in good spirits. But how does one measure something so subjective? Bieber likes the Happy Planet Index (a calculation created by TED speaker Nic Marks), which uses four variables to measure national well-being — she suggests that it can be translated for the workplace to include factors such as average longevity on the job and perceived fairness of opportunities. Bieber envisions a future where we invest not just with our minds and wallets, but with hearts as well.

Seeing intellectual disability through the eyes of a mom. When Emilie Weight’s son Mike was diagnosed with fragile X syndrome, an intellectual disability, it changed how she approached life. Mike’s differences compelled her to question her inner self and her role in the world, leading her to three essential tools that she now benefits from. Mindfulness helps her focus on the positive daily events that we often overlook. Mike also reminds Emilie of the importance of time management to use the time that she has instead of chasing it. Lastly, he’s taught her the benefit of emotional intelligence through adapting to the emotions of others. Emilie believes in harnessing the powers of people with intellectual disabilities: “Intellectually disabled people can bring added value to our society,” she says, “Being free of the mental barriers that are responsible for segregation and isolation, they are natural-born mediators.”

Christian Wickert suggests three ways that we can tap into the power of fiction — and how it could benefit our professional lives. (Photo: Paul Clarke / TED)

Can fiction make you better at your job? Forget self-help books; reading fiction might be the ticket to advancing your career. Take it from Christian Wickert, an engineer focusing on strategy and policy, who took a creative writing course — a course, he believes, that sharpened his perception, helped him understand other people’s motivations, and ultimately made him better at his job. Wickert explores three ways fiction can improve your business skills. First, he says, fiction helps you identify characters, their likes, dislikes, habits and traits. In business, this ability to identify characters can give you tremendous insights into a person’s behavior, telling you when someone is playing a role versus being authentic. Second, fiction reminds us that words have power. For example, “sorry” is a very powerful word, and when used appropriately it can transform a situation. Finally, fiction teaches you to look for a point of view — which in business is the key to good negotiation. So the next time you have a big meeting coming up, Wickert concludes, prepare by writing — and let the fiction flow.

How math can help us answer questions about our health. Mathematician Irina Kareva translates biology into mathematics, and vice versa. As a mathematical modeler, she doesn’t think about what things are but instead about what things do — about relationships between individuals, whether they’re cells, animals or people. Take an example: What do foxes and immune cells have in common? They’re both predators, except foxes feed on rabbits and immune cells feed on invaders, such as cancer cells. But from a mathematical point of view, the same system of predator-prey equations will describe both interactions between foxes and rabbits and cancer and immune cells. Understanding the dynamics between predator and prey — and the ecosystem they both inhabit — from a mathematical point of view could lead to new insights, specifically in the development of drugs that target tumors. “The power and beauty of mathematical modeling lies in the fact that it makes you formalize in a very rigorous way what we think we know,” Kareva says. “It can help guide us as to where we should keep looking, or where there might be a dead end.” It all comes down to asking the right question, and translating it to the right equation, and back.

End-to-end tracking of donated medicine. Neglected tropical diseases, or NTDs, are a diverse group of diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions. Globally, they affect more than one billion people. A coalition of pharmaceutical companies, governments, health organizations, charities and other partners, called Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases, is committed to fighting NTDs using donated medicines — but shipping them to their destination poses complex problems. “How do we keep an overview of our shipments and make sure the tablets actually arrive where they need to go?” asks Christian Schröter, head of Pharma Business Integration at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. Currently, the coalition is piloting a shipping tracker for their deliveries — similar to the tracking you receive for a package you order online — that tracks shipments to the first warehouse in recipient countries. This year, they took it a step further and tracked the medicines all the way to the point of treatment. “Still, many stakeholders would need to join in to achieve end-to-end tracking,” he says. “We would not change the amount of tablets donated, but we would change the amount of tablets arriving where they need to go, at the point of treatment, helping patients.”

Why we should pay doctors to keep people healthy. Most healthcare systems reimburse doctors based on the kind and number of treatments they perform, says business developer Matthias Müllenbeck. That’s why when Müllenbeck went to the dentist with a throbbing toothache, his doctor offered him a $10,000 treatment (which would involve removing his damaged tooth and screwing an artificial one into his jaw) instead of a less expensive, less invasive, non-surgical option. We’re incentivizing the wrong thing, Müllenbeck believes. Instead of fee-for-service health care, he proposes that we reimburse doctors and hospitals for the number of days that a single individual is kept healthy, and stop paying them when that individual gets sick. This radical idea could save us from unnecessary costs and risky procedures — and end up keeping people healthier.

The music of TED@Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. During the conference, music innovator Tim Exile wandered around recording ambient noises and sounds: a robot decompressing, the murmur of the audience, a hand fumbling with tape, a glass of sparkling water being poured. Onstage, he closes out the day by threading together these sounds to create an entirely new — and strangely absorbing — piece of electronic music.

source

Speed of change: The talks of TEDNYC x BMW i

The speed of change is a constant in our lives. Sometimes it’s worth slowing things down, to look at what might be changing without us even considering it.

To celebrate the efforts of innovators, change-makers and dreamers who are reimagining the future, TED has partnered with BMW i. In a special session of talks hosted by TED design curator Chee Pearlman and TED science curator David Biello at TED HQ in New York City on Thursday night, five speakers (and three remarkable performers) explored how we might shape future through creativity and imagination.

Acoustic duo Anielle and Matthew kicked off the evening with a performance of their original song “Dead Romance,” weaving together the sounds of Americana folk music and modern pop.

Systems engineer and researcher Danielle Wood shares six ways technologies developed for space exploration can lead to better, more sustainable development on earth. (Photo: Jasmina Tomic/TED)

Justice and development through space. Danielle Wood leads the Space Enabled research group at the MIT Media Lab, where she works to break down the idea that space is for the few, the rich or the elite. She identifies six space technologies that can contribute to sustainable development across the world. First, communication satellites can be essential during times of disaster, when regular communication networks malfunction. Likewise, scientists use positioning satellites to study endangered species and track their movements, and they use earth observation satellites to measure features of our environment such as the temperature of the ocean. Next, the diet and exercise regimens used by astronauts living in orbiting laboratories like the International Space Station help us learn more about how to improve health on earth. Space spinoff includes the inventions created for space that can transfer to other fields outside space technology. Finally, adventures in space can serve as inspiration for people across the globe to develop new skills in science and technology. “Space truly is useful for sustainable development for the benefit of all peoples,” Wood says.

Shared mobility architect Sandra Phillips details the opportunities of carsharing at TED and BMW i’s Speed of Change salon. (Photo: Jasmina Tomic/TED)

The future of shared mobility and public transportation. Shared mobility architect Sandra Phillips has helped launch car-sharing programs in several countries, bridging the gap between homes and distant subway stations while benefiting the environment and community. The idea is simple: “Essentially, you become a member of a club and gain access to different types of shared vehicles. You only use them when you need them, and you pay for what you use,” Phillips says. In practice, this looks like using a shared car or bike to get to the nearest transit station, instead of relying on your own car. In a study conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, researchers found that in the five cities where carsharing service Car2Go was tested, some 28,000 cars were removed from the roads, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and opening up space for parks, libraries and other community hubs. Phillips believes this is possible because car-sharing brings together the inclusive social mandate of public transportation and the innovation behind private mobility companies. While it may not be the solution for congestion in large cities, in places like Vancouver and Sacramento, having access to car-sharing could transform how people get around.

The dark side of our beautiful lawns. Americans think of our lawns as lush, green, living carpets that we proudly display in front of our homes. But they’ve become one of the most high-maintenance — and damaging — of accessories. In the US, lawns cover more than 40 million acres, making them our largest irrigated crop, says landscape architect Edwina von Gal. We shower them with billions of gallons of water (half of which is wasted) and douse them with chemicals. “The typical lawn uses two to four times more fertilizers and pesticides per square foot than crops,” says von Gal. These chemicals have been linked to human diseases like cancers, endocrine system and nervous system disorders, allergies and asthma; they harm our waterways, marine life, insects and birds; and they’re decimating the soil biome, the beneficial microbes in the dirt. But we don’t have to give up our lawns, says von Gal: “We just need to work with nature, not against it.” Her advice is simple: water seldom but water deep; mow high; let clippings and leaves serve as compost and mulch; and let nature happen. “We need to think about whether we’re walking across a toxic lawn to get to our patch of organic kale,” von Gal says.

Materials scientist Andrew Dent shares thrifty ideas for the future of design. (Photo: Jasmina Tomic/TED)

Adventures in thrift. In an age where everything feels replaceable and planned obsolescence is a genuine business strategy, materials scientist Andrew Dent wants us to consider a powerful idea: thrifting. There is no “away,” Dent says; when we discard something (as we do to the tune of 1.3 billion tons of waste per year globally) it ends up in ever-growing landfills. But we can get smarter about the way we make, and remake, our products, he says. From consumer electronics made of nanocellulose, bulletproof materials made from synthetic spider silk and enzymes that can help make plastic infinitely recyclable, Dent shares exciting examples of thrift and advances in material science in action. “If you make anything, think about how that product could be potentially used for a second life, or a third life,” Dent says. “Design the ability for your products to be taken apart.”

Journalist and screenwriter Drew Philp tells inspirational stories of “radical neighborliness” at TED and BMW i’s Speed of Change Salon. (Photo: Jasmina Tomic/TED)

Radical neighborliness. In 2009, journalist and screenwriter Drew Philp bought a ruined house in Detroit for $500. But in the years that followed, as he gutted the interior and removed the heaps of garbage crowding the rooms, he learned less about repairing a house than about building a community. Six decades of decline, plus a rapid exodus in the past ten years, have left a chunk of Detroit the size of San Francisco empty and abandoned. But those who’ve stayed put, Philp says, have formed the kinds of neighborhoods and city streets where people want to live. Philp calls the camaraderie he sees at work in Detroit “radical neighborliness,” and he thinks this principle “may provide the answers to cities struggling everywhere and looking to re-invent themselves.” In a tribute to the city he loves, Philp makes the case that we do have “the power to create the world anew, together, and to do it ourselves when our governments refuse.”

Wonder, illusion and magic. Set to a lively hip-hop beat, then a slower more sentimental accompaniment, illusionist and magic designer Andrew Evans enraptured the audience in the night’s closing performance. With dynamism and charisma, Evans amazed the crowd with a series of enchanting illusions, inviting people to see what can happen if you just let yourself believe. “I’d much prefer people walk away with thoughts beyond the stage,” he says, “wondering what other things in the world might deserve a closer look.”

source